My agency contract (and my personal belief) prohibits spanking, shaming or hurting a child in any way. Agency policy says that any child guidance action taken is to be "reasonable given the circumstances" and must never involve "physical punishment, verbal or physical degradation or emotional deprivation." I may not deny or threaten to deny basic necessities or use or permit physical restraint, confinement or isolation.
The methods I rely on include offering choices, setting limits, anticipating child needs, assisting children to calm themselves, providing explanations, redirection, natural or logical consequences, distraction or offering an alternate activity, positive reinforcement, and recognizing differences in developmental levels. I do not use "time outs", but do sometimes use variations of "time in," providing extra supervision and support to children who are having difficulties getting along with others. I often support children who are finding play situations stressful in choosing a different activity or toy or play partner for a time.
My philosophy has been "I'll do whatever is respectful and works". Two tools I use regularly are developing values and house rules in collaboration with the children and, above all, close supervision of the children. Some days, we throw my activity plans out the window and I simply sit on the floor with the children and do "closely-supervised sharing of highly-desirable toys" until I feel that all of our interpersonal skills have improved. I frequently share picture books with the children relating to social skills, emotions, or situations that some may be struggling with.
I make my primary child guidance focus with the children on all of us being safe, gentle and kind with each other, building empathy, and giving children the words and tools they need to express their feelings and to solve common problems, such as toy-sharing.